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First Aid Kit for burns, Burns Survival Kits, Burns First Aid Kits, burns first aid supply, emergency kit, fun survival kit, survival equipment, teacher's survival kit, military first aid kit, sports first aid kit, travel survival kit, pet first aid kit, restaurant first aid kit, logger first aid kit

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Burns
Burn injuries can be classified as thermal (heat), chemical, or electrical.
. Thermal (heat) burns. Not all thermal burns are caused by flames. Contact with hot objects, flammable vapor that ignites and causes a flash or an explosion, and steam or hot liquid are other common causes of burns.
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. Chemical burns. A wide range of chemical agents can cause tissue damage and death if they come in contact with the skin. As with thermal burns, the amount of tissue damage depends on the duration of contact, the skin thickness in the area of exposure, and the strength of the chemical agent. Chemicals will continue to cause tissue destruction until the chemical agent is removed. Three types of chemicals-acids, alkalis, and organic compounds-are responsible for most chemical burns.
. Electrical burns. The severity of an injury from contact with electrical current depends on the type of current (direct or alternating), the voltage, the area of the body exposed, and the duration of contact.


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Historically, burns have been described as first-degree, second-degree, and third-degree injuries. The terms superficial, partial thickness, and full thickness are often used by burn-care professionals because they are more descriptive of the tissue damage.
. First-degree (superficial) burns affect the skin's outer layer (epidermis) . Characteristics include redness, mild swelling, tenderness, and pain. Healing occurs without scarring, usually within a week. The outer edges of deeper burns often are first -degree burns.
. Second-degree (partial-thickness) burns extend through the entire outer layer and into the inner skin layer ( _ Figure 2 ). Blisters, swelling, weeping of fluids, and severe pain characterize these burns, because the capillary blood vessels in the dermis are damaged and give up fluid into surrounding tissues. Intact blisters provide a sterile, waterproof covering.

 

First-degree

Second-degree burn blisters

Once a blister breaks, a weeping wound results and the risk of infection increases.


. Third-degree (full-thickness) burns are severe burns that penetrate all the skin layers, into the underlying fat and muscle (_Figure 3). The skin looks leathery, waxy, or pearly gray and sometimes charred. There is a dry appearance, because capillary blood vessels have been destroyed and no more fluid is brought to the area. The skin does not blanch after being pressed because the area is dead. The victim feels no pain from a third-degree burn because the nerve endings have been damaged or destroyed. Any pain that is felt is from surrounding burns of lesser degrees. Medical care for a third-degree burn involves removing the dead tissue and often a skin graft to heal properly.
Respiratory damage may result from breathing heat or the products of combustion;

Rule of Nines is used to calculate the extent of a burn

Do NOT remove clothing stuck to the skin.Pulling will further damage the skin.
Do NOT forget to remove jewelry as soon as possible-swelling could make jewelry difficult remove later.

children and infants, the head accounts for 18% and each leg is 14%.
For small or scattered burns, use the rule of the palm. The victim's hand, excluding the fingers and the thumb, represents about 1 % of his or her total
body surface. Estimate the unburned area in number of hands.
Determine what parts of the body are burned. Burns on the face, hands, feet, and genitals are more severe than on other body parts. A circumferential burn (one that goes around a finger, toe, arm, leg, neck, or chest) is considered more severe than a non circumferential one because it can have con­striction and tourniquet effects on circulation and, in some cases, breathing. All these burns require immediate medical care.
 
Determine if other injuries or preexisting medical problems exist or if the victim is elderly (over 55) or very young (under five). A medical problem or belonging to one of those age groups increases a burn's severity.
7. Determine the burn's severity ( "'Table 1 ). This forms the basis for how to treat the burned victim. Most burns are minor, occur at home, and can be managed outside a medical setting. Seek medical attention for all moderate and severe burns, as classified by the ABA, or if any of the following conditions applies:
 

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Minor Burns

First-degree burn covering less than 50% BSA* in adults (face, hands, feet, or genitals not burned)

Second-degree burn covering less than 15% BSA in adults

Second-degree burn covering less than 10% BSA in children/elderly persons

Third-degree burn covering less than 2% BSA in adults (face, hands, feet, or genitals not burned)

 

Moderate Burns

First-degree burn covering more than 50% BSA in adults Second-degree burn covering 15% to 30% BSA in adults Second-degree burn covering 10% to 20% BSA in children/elderly persons

Third-degree burn covering 2% to 10% BSA in adults (face, hands, or feet not burned)

 

Critical Burns

First-degree burn covering more than 70% BSA Second-degree burn covering more than 30% BSA in adults Second-degree burn covering more than 20% BSA in children/elderly persons

Third-degree burn covering more than 10% BSA in adults Third-degree burn covering more than 2% BSA in children/elderly persons or any part of the face, hands, feet or genitals

Also most inhalation injuries, electrical injuries, and burns accompanied by major trauma or significant preexisting conditions

 *BSA = body surface area

Source: Adapted from the American Burn Association categorization

 Critical injury exists when  hands, feet, or genitals are burned. Surface area of a second-degree burn is less than 15% of the body surface area. More then 15% is third-degree

 Put the burned area in cold water or apply a dump  cloth to reduce pain . Cold also stops the burn from pro­gressing  into deeper tissue. If cold water is unavail­se any cold drinkable liquid to reduce the rature of the burned skin.

Ubiprofen to relieve pain and inflammation. children acetaminophen.

Apply an aloe vera gel or a skin moisturizer lotion to keep the skin mois­ter and to reduce itching and peeling. Aloe vera has licrobial properties and is an effective analgesic for relieve. Burned arm or leg elevated.

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Cool burn with cold water until pain is relieved.

 

DO NOT apply cold to more than 20% of

An adult's body surface (10% for children); widespread cooling can cause hypothermia. Burn victims lose large amounts of heat and water.

 DO NOT apply salve, ointment, grease, butter, cream, spray, home remedy, or any other coating on a burn until after it cools. Such coatings are unsterile and can lead to infection. They also can seal in heat, causing further damage.

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Care of Small Second-Degree Burns «200/0 BSA)

1. Follow steps 1 and 2 of First-Degree Burn care.
2. After the burn cools, apply a thin layer of bacitracin ointment. Topical antibiotic therapy like bacitracin does not sterilize a wound, but it does decrease the number of bacteria to a level that can be controlled by the body's defense mechanisms and prevents the entrance of bacteria.
3. Cover the bum with a dry, nonsticking, sterile dressing or a clean cloth. Covering the burn reduces the amount of pain by keeping air from the exposed nerve endings. The main purpose of a dressing over a burn is to keep the burn clean, prevent moisture
loss through evaporation, and reduce pain. If toes or fingers have been burned, place dry dressings between them.
4. Have the victim drink as much water as possible without becoming nauseous.


DO NOT
cool more than 20% of an adult's body surface area (10% for a child) except to extinguish flames.
DO NOT
break any blisters. Intact blisters serve as excellent burn dressings. Cover a ruptured blister with bacitracin ointment and a dry, sterile dressing.

...
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 Large Second-Degree Burns 20% BSA
Do not apply cold because it may cause hypothermia.
Follows steps 2 through 4 of Small Second- Degree Burn care «20% BSA).
Seek medical attention.

Care of Third-Degree Burns
Cover the burn with a dry, nonsticking, sterile dressing or a clean cloth.
Treat the victim for shock by elevating the legs and keeping the victim warm with a clean sheet or blanket.
Seek medical attention.
 

Chemical Burns

Chemical burn is the result of a caustic or corrosive materials touching the skin. Because chemicals continue to "burn" as long as they are in contact with the body, they should be removed from the victim as rapidly as possible. The aid is the same for all chemical burns, except a few ones for which a chemical neutralizer has to be Alkalis such as drain cleaners cause more serious, than acids such as battery acid because they penetrate deeper and remain active longer. Organic compounds as petroleum products are also capable of burning.

Chemical burn from sulfuric acid

 

DO NOT apply water under high pressure-it will drive the chemical deeper into the tissue.

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DO NOT try to neutralize a chemical even if you know which chemical is involved-heat may be produced, resulting in more damage. Some product labels for neutralizing may be wrong. Save the container or the label for the chemical's name

What to Do

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1. Immediately remove the chemical by flushing the area with water . If available, use a hose or a shower. Brush dry powder chemicals from the skin before flushing, unless large amounts of water are immediately available. Water may activate a dry chemical and cause more damage to the skin. Take precautions to protect yourself from exposure to the chemical.
2. Remove the victim's contaminated clothing and jewelry while flushing with water. Clothing can hold chemicals, allowing them to continue to burn as long as they are in contact with the skin.
3. Flush for 20 minutes all chemical burns (skin, eyes). Washing with large amounts of water dilutes the chemical concentration and washes it away.
4. Cover the burned area with a dry, sterile dressing or,
for large areas, a clean pillowcase.
5. Seek medical attention immediately for all chemical burns.

critical Burns
A mild electrical shock can cause serious internal injuries. A current of 1,000 volts or more is considered high voltage, but even the 110 volts found in ordinary house could cause an electrical shock.
High Electrical current can be deadly.
There are three types of electrical injuries: thermal In (flame), arc burn (flash), and true electrical injury(tact).

A thermal burn (flame) results when clothing objects get in direct contact with the skin are ignited by an electrical current. These injuries are caused by the flames produced by the electrical current and not by the passage an electrical current or arc.
arc burn (flash) occurs when electricity jumps, or arcs, one spot to another. The electrical current does not go through the body. Although the duration of the flash brief, it usually causes extensive superficial injuries. true electrical injury (contact) happens when an electrical current truly passes through the body. This type of injury characterized by an entrance wound and an exit
d. The important factor in this type of injury is that surface injury may be just the tip of the iceberg. High electrical currents passing through the body may stop the normal heart rhythm and cause cardiac arrest, and other injuries.
Getting an electric shock, electricity enters the body at point of contact and travels along the path of least

Electrical burn on toe

resistance (nerves and blood vessels). The major damage occurs inside the body-the outside burn may appear small. Usually, the electricity exits where the body touches a surface or comes in contact with a ground (eg, a metal object). Sometimes, a victim has more than one exit site

What to Do
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1. Make sure the area is safe. Unplug, disconnect, or turn off the power. If that is impossible, call the power company or EMS for help.
2. Check ABCs.
3. If the victim fell, check for a spinal injury.
4. Treat the victim for shock by elevating the legs 8 to 12 inches if no spinal injury is suspected; prevent heat loss by covering the victim with a coat or blanket.
5. Seek medical attention immediately. Electrical injuries usually require burn center care.

Contact with a Power Line (Outdoors)
If the electric shock is from contact with a downed power line, the power must be turned off before a rescuer approaches anyone who may be in contact with the wire.
If you feel a tingling sensation in your legs and lower body as you approach a victim, stop. The sensation signals that you are on energized ground and that an electrical current is entering through one foot, passing through your lower body, and leaving through the other foot. Raise one foot off the ground, turn around, and hop to a safe place.
If you can safely reach the victim, do not attempt to move any wires, even with wooden poles, tools with wood handles, or tree branches. Do not use objects with a high moisture content and certainly not metal objects. You should not use wood -handled rakes, brooms, or shovels because if the voltage is high enough (you seldom will know how much voltage is involved), those objects can conduct electricity and you will be electrocuted. Do not attempt to move downed wires at all unless you are trained and are equipped with tools that can handle the high voltage.
Wait until trained personnel with the proper equipment can cut the wires or disconnect them. Prevent bystanders from entering the danger area.

Contact Inside Buildings
Most electrical burns that occur indoors are caused by
faulty electrical equipment or careless use of electrical appliances. Turn off the electricity at the circuit breaker, fuse box, or outside switch box or unplug the appliance if the plug is undamaged. Do not touch the appliance or the victim until the current is off.
Once there is no danger to rescuers, first aid can begin.

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